Photographing Africa
A Woman’s View

Constance Stuart Larrabee and friend photographing among Ndebele women, near Pretoria, South Africa, 1936
December32018

From the time she received a Kodak Brownie at age 10, South Africa-raised Constance Stuart Larrabee captured the world around her with an unsparing eye, ensuring her place as one of the 20th century’s foremost photojournalists.

Larrabee’s work photographing the vanishing tribal cultures of southern Africa in the 1930s and 40s set the stage for a diverse and groundbreaking career. As South Africa’s first female war correspondent, she photographed troops at the front during World War II, came under fire aboard a French tank and snapped images of General Charles De Gaulle during the liberation of Paris. Later in life, she settled on Maryland’s Eastern Shore and recorded images of the tidewaters around her home.

But her early work documenting the lives and rituals of the Ndebele, Zulu and Xhosa peoples—among many others—sealed her legacy as a pioneering photographer who immersed herself in other cultures.

Larrabee is one of 14 women photographers whose work will be digitized and catalogued as part of a National Museum of African Art project to highlight women’s photography in Africa (see slideshow below). The effort, part of the Smithsonian American Women’s History Initiative, will make accessible collections of photos, negatives, slides, field notes and audio recordings, all linked to women who photographed the continent from the 1930s through the 1970s.

Amy Staples, senior archivist at the museum’s Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, said the time is right to bring new attention to these trailblazing women. “In the last few years, we’ve seen increased interest from researchers in these collections,” she said. “At the same time, we’ve received a number of donated private collections as some of these women have passed away. We’re now in a unique position to create a new framework for studying women’s photography, and to look in particular at how they saw Africa.”

The 14 women represent a range of professions, from art historians to geologists to journalists. They used photography—across all regions of Africa—as a tool for documentation and field research, to record cultures and ways of life, and to make news. Many saw their role as an advocate for the people they portrayed.

When looking across the photographs, said Staples, several common themes emerge: an emphasis on portraits, women performing daily work, women relating to children and a more empathetic approach to subjects. “We want to answer the question, ‘How do men and women photograph the world in a different way?’”

In addition to Larrabee, the group of women includes Marvin Breckinridge Patterson, a documentarian and later CBS war correspondent who traveled from Capetown, South Africa, to Cairo, Egypt, in 1932; and Marilyn Houlberg, an artist, anthropologist and art historian who photographed her travels through Nigeria’s Yorubaland in the 1960s and 70s. (See full list of women’s collections to be digitized.)

About one-third of the 14 collections are currently digitized, with new records and photos going online each week. Museum photo archivist Eden Orelove said she expects to complete the project by late summer 2019.

Pioneering Women Photographers in Africa
 Marvin Breckinridge Patterson filming at Great Zimbabwe ruins, Rhodesia (Zimbabwe)

Journalist and filmmaker Marvin Breckinridge Patterson (pictured) traveled from Capetown to Cairo in 1932, taking photographs along the way. She would later become a CBS radio correspondent during World War II—the only female member of the group of journalists known as “The Murrow Boys.”

 

Marvin Breckinridge Patterson filming at Great Zimbabwe ruins, Rhodesia (Zimbabwe)
Photograph by Olivia Stokes Hatch, 1932
EEPA 1985-009-0050

Ndebele woman, near Pretoria, South Africa

Photojournalist Constance Stuart Larrabee, raised in South Africa and later settled in the United States, is known for her 1930s and 40s photographs of vanishing tribal cultures in southern Africa.

 

Ndebele woman, near Pretoria, South Africa
Photograph by Constance Stuart Larrabee, 1946
EEPA 1998-060464

Xhosa woman plowing, Transkei, South Africa

Larrabee captured the lives and rituals of the Ndebele, Zulu and Xhosa peoples, among others. As South Africa’s first female war correspondent, she later photographed troops at the front during World War II.

 

Xhosa woman plowing, Transkei, South Africa
Photograph by Constance Stuart Larrabee, 1949
EEPA 1998-061342

Woman breastfeeding baby, Natal, South Africa

Many of the women photographers featured in the National Museum of African Art’s Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives took portraits of women and children, as well as photos of women engaged in daily work.

 

Woman breastfeeding baby, Natal, South Africa
Photograph by Constance Stuart Larrabee, February 1949
EEPA 1998-060185

Ndebele bride wearing beaded neck and leg rings, South Africa

Natalie Knight, a gallery owner, curator and art critic, and Suzanne Priebatsch, a former freelance writer and lecturer, won funding from the Smithsonian in 1976 to research Ndebele art in South Africa. Their work resulted in a Smithsonian traveling exhibition, which toured the United States from 1979 to 1981.

 

Ndebele bride wearing beaded neck and leg rings, South Africa
Photograph by Natalie Knight and Suzanne Priebatsch, c. 1977 - 1983
EEPA 2012-010-0100

h by Natalie Knight and Suzanne Priebatsch, c. 1977 - 1983\r\nEEPA 2012-010-0100"}},"attributes":{"alt":"Ndebele bride wearing beaded neck and leg rings, South Africa","title":"Ndebele bride wearing beaded neck and leg rings, South Africa","class":"media-element file-default","data-delta":"18"}}]]
Portrait of woman with face and shoulder scarification, Bida, Nigeria

Jean Borgatti is an art historian and professor at Clark University. She took this 1973 photo of a woman in Nigeria showing common body tattoos and scarification, which indicate a specific ethnic group or village.

 

Portrait of woman with face and shoulder scarification, Bida, Nigeria
Photograph by Jean Borgatti, 1973
EEPA 2016-007-2488

Basket makers, Senafe, Eritrea

Betty LaDuke is an artist based in Oregon who traveled extensively in Africa from 1986 to 2006. Her photos of Ethiopia and Eritrea from that time period depict village scenes, artists and artists at work.

 

Basket makers, Senafe, Eritrea
Photograph by Betty LaDuke, 1998
EEPA 2007-003-2493

Woman working in sisal plantation, Tanzania

Photojournalist Lynn McLaren covered East Africa in the 1950s and 60s for various news outlets. Her subjects included agriculture, health and education.

 

Woman working in sisal plantation, Tanzania
Photograph by Lynn McLaren, 1966
EEPA 2007-009-0538

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Image Credit (top): Constance Stuart Larrabee (left) and friend photographing among Ndebele women, near Pretoria, South Africa, 1936

All photos courtesy Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art, Smithsonian Institution.

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